Apollo Hospitals is an Indian hospital chain based in Chennai, India. It was founded by Dr Prathap C. Reddy in 1983 and has hospitals in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Ghana, Nigeria, Mauritius, Qatar, Oman and Kuwait. Apollo hospitals plan add 2,955 beds across India in the next three years. Several of the group’s hospitals have been among the first in India to receive international healthcare accreditation by America-based Joint Commission International (JCI).
The group has developed services in telemedicine, after starting a pilot project in 2000 in Pratap Reddy’s home village. It is now the largest telemedicine provider in India with 71 centers. The success of Apollo Hospitals has made it a topic for Harvard Business School case study.
Cancer Listeni/ˈkænsər/, also known as a malignant tumor, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include: a new lump, abnormal bleeding, a prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements, among others. While these symptoms may indicate cancer they may also occur due to other issues. There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.
Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is due to obesity, a poor diet, lack of physical activity, and drinking alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation, and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human papillomavirus. These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically many such genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to genetic defects inherited from a person’s parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, eating more vegetables, fruits and whole grains, eating less meat and refined carbohydrates, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, minimizing sunlight exposure, and being vaccinated against certain infectious diseases. Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in those with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis the five year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States the average five year survival rate is 66%.
In 2012 about 14.1 million new cases of cancer occured globally. It caused about 8.2 million deaths or 14.6% of all human deaths. The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. In females the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer, and cervical cancer. In children acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and brain tumors are most common except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012 about 165,000 children less than 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. The financial costs of cancer have been estimated at $1.16 trillion US dollars as of 2010.
There is no one definition that describes all cancers. They are a large family of diseases which show features suggestive of malignancy. They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth, and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely.
Six characteristics of malignancies have been proposed:
self-sufficiency in growth signalling
insensitivity to anti-growth signals
evasion of apoptosis
enabling of a limitless replicative potential
induction and sustainment of angiogenesis
activation of metastasis and invasion of tissue.
The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a discernible mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression.
Signs and symptoms
Main article: Cancer signs and symptoms